plagiarism

Everyone knows that plagiarism is wrong, but not everyone is clear exactly what plagiarism is. It is more than just copying the work of another without attribution. For your edification and delight, we have listed the various forms of plagiarism in descending order of gravity, from classic absolute plagiarism to that closer to the grey area between plagiarism and sloppy scholarship. All of them should be avoided.

Plagiarism is the . . .

  1. Word-for-word lifting of seven consecutive words or more, without quotation marks or block quotation, and without attribution to any source.
  2. Word-for-word lifting of seven consecutive words or more, without quotation marks or block quotation, with an attribution to a source that was not the original source from which the passage was actually lifted nor the source cited (if any) by that original source.
  3. Word-for-word lifting of seven consecutive words or more, without quotation marks or block quotation, with attribution to a source that was not the original source from which the passage was actually lifted, but was a source cited by that original source.
  4. Word-for-word lifting of seven consecutive words or more, with attribution to the original source from which the passage was actually lifted, but without indication that these are the words of another.
  5. Word-for-word lifting of seven consecutive words or more, without quotation marks or block quotation, with attribution to the original source from which the passage was actually lifted, and with the indication that these are the words of another.
  6. Attributing a quoted passage to a source that does not contain that quoted passage.
  7. Attributing material to a source that does not support the passage for which it is cited.
  8. Misquoting a source.
  9. Lifting a quoted passage and its attribution from another source without acknowledgment or other indication. An example of this would be if you were reading an article by Smith that quoted another article by Jones, and you put the quotation in your paper with an attribution to Jones, but no mention that you got it from Smith who was quoting Jones.